“Meaning” in a Meaningless World: One Atheist’s Argument from Evil
“The meaning of life is not the pleasure principle; only a fool
would be convinced that the meaning of life is maximized
pleasure by any means possible, which seems to be the only
positive message that the atheists have at their disposal” (Atheist).
the War in 1944, Nazis hurriedly rounded up and executed 425,000 Hungarian Jews in the Auschwitz gas chambers. Famed Jewish artist and Holocaust survivor Alice Lok Cahana, at age 15, was the only member of her family
to survive the ordeal, and the story she has told of both atrocities and acts of paradoxical kindness is hauntingly tragic. Yet decades later, Cahana remains a devout believer in God and in the ultimate good
inside humanity. "Art must have a message,” Cahana said, “of the tran[s]cendence of the human spirit over inhumane
evil and hate" (Hagerty).
* * *
July 8, 2003, a plane flying from Port Sudan to Khartoum, Sudan crashed into a hillside, resulting in the death of 116 passengers. A two-year-old boy, Mohammed el-Fateh Osman, was the sole survivor. Although the child was badly burned and had to have its right leg amputated, Sudan’s aviation minister,
Mohammed Hassan al-Bahi, speaking about the horrific event, said: “If you
were to see the state of the bodies . . . you would know it was a miracle dictated by God that this child has come out alive”
* * *
In the spring
of 1994, militant Hutu and many Rwandan soldiers executed nearly 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus. This campaign of genocide included the mass rape and HIV infection of tens of thousands of Rwandan women,
including Joseline Ingabire, 39, the only member of her family to survive the genocide:
he came to rape me, I was pregnant. He told me I was not the first
had raped. He was ruthless, he put a spear in my leg then raped
me for four
hours. I stayed in that place for six days, and they raped me
She was subsequently imprisoned as
a sex slave for months. Of her daughter, Leah, the product of that violation,
Ingabire says that “I never loved Leah” but now “I am beginning to appreciate that this other one is innocent”
* * *
hundreds of millions of innocent human beings suffer untold evils, both moral – the result of willful wrongdoing --
and natural – all other evil (Botterill 120). Whether, like Osman, people
are victims of natural disasters and accidents or whether, like Cahana and Ingabire, they are victims of outright, willful
acts of evil by moral agents, the search for meaning and purpose can seem fruitless in a world where suffering is the status
quo. And it is likely that even millions more suffer from unhappiness, addiction,
regret, or emotional pain as events and losses all too often underscore the powerlessness they experience in their lives when
faced with evil, whether imposed or accidental.
explanations for the existence of evil in a world allegedly watched over by an all-good, all-knowing, all-powerful god may
reside in the purview of philosophers and theologians, yet explanations fall far short for those who suffer or who are touched
by those suffering. Often, when people consider the paradox of the existence
of both evil and a benevolent, omnipotent god, unsatisfying arguments lead some
to the conclusion that god must not, therefore, exist or else this god could not possibly be either all-good or all-powerful. Even in the face of overwhelming evidence that calls into question the simultaneous
and enigmatic belief in both evil and an omnipotent, benevolent god, we still “tailor our assumptions to fit certain
principles which we simply refuse to reject,” namely that somehow there is an explanation for this apparent paradox
(Botterill 117). Nonetheless, barring the possibility that god is weak or –
worse yet – maniacal, how does one find meaning in a world in which one might conclude that god cannot, therefore, exist?
I have struggled
for most of my adult life with this question. Christian platitudes like “trust
God, we can’t comprehend His ways” and “it’s a Mystery, we’re not meant to know” have
been, for me, an unsatisfying chalice from which to drink. Even as a child,
I often pondered why things are the way they are: Why are we encouraged to search for knowledge about everything but not allowed
to question god? Why do people who follow the same god continue to persecute
and kill one another? Why does pain and suffering exist if god is supposed to
truly love us? These were all questions which, as a child, I was to find no
answers. It wasn’t that no one had answers – everyone had an opinion,
it seemed. Instead, it was that no one would even entertain my questions. I was often made to feel somehow inadequate for even asking about god and was
told that those who lacked faith could not enter into the “Kingdom of Heaven.”
I believed in god just as the bible stories told in Sunday School. “Suffer
the children to come unto Me” and “if you have the faith of a mustard seed” were all verses I knew by heart,
planted into the very fabric of my mind like sown seed.
So why could I,
then, never move a mountain? Any mountain?
I had faith. It seemed to me that, no matter how hard I tried, no matter
how much I prayed or what I prayed for – whether for me or for others – nothing ever happened. It was like making a phone call to someone who didn’t have an answering machine. It just rang on and on and on and on, Ad infinitum.
As I got older,
people found my questions even more disturbing, and all but the most faithless would shun my inquiries as though I was a pariah
about to be struck by lightning. Yet I was caught in between two worlds, struggling
somehow to amalgamate logic and faith into one. Those who had already intellectually
rent the sackcloth of faith chastised me for even considering god to be real, while those who believed – practically
everyone around me – were appalled by my lack of faith. Neither side –
the atheists nor the theists – could honestly address the questions which, by this time, had multiplied ten-fold. Where was I to turn?
If anything, I
pondered as a young man, the answer to my questions might actually be found in the bible.
So with that, I thrust myself wholeheartedly into the world of religion, going to church, praying even harder, attending
church events and bible studies, even hanging out with Christian-only friends. In
the process of immersing myself in God and His Church, I found myself poorer than I was (give
until it hurts and God will reward you), no girlfriend (God will bring you a righteous
woman), no career (God didn’t value evil, liberal education or jobs that
paid more than minimum wage), and no more closer to inner peace than I had before I dropped out of school, penniless. To top all of this, I watched as god’s shepherd stole tens of thousands of
dollars from the church and ran away with the secretary, stranding his wife and children.
If there was a lesson in any of this, it was that Truth would not be found among the religious.
I began to immerse myself in pure logic. I held my belief in an all-good, all-powerful,
all-knowing god, but I decided to search for answers to my questions in science and reasoning.
And reason I did. I conducted mind-experiments where I hypothesized just
how god could actually be all-knowing, developing structures of logical thought that would buttress my faith. I studied Kepler and Copernicus as much as I studied the bible.
If, I surmised, I could somehow develop a rational theory to explain how god can exist and operate as the bible tells
us, then I would be able to support my beliefs through logic and, therefore, justify my faith.
Yet, far from answering the burning questions on my mind, my inquiries into a scientific explanation for god only led
to increasingly complex questions that neither science nor the bible could readily answer, questions that delve into the very
heart of morality: If killing is wrong, isn’t it just as “wrong” to execute adults as it is to abort unborn
humans? Why would God have the Israelites slay every man, woman, and child in
their post-exodus conquest of Palestine? If the Soviets launch a preemptive
nuclear strike, is it “right” to launch our missiles in retaliation? Do
two wrongs, then, make a right? And if everything in this world is preordained
and happens for a purpose – even the motion of every atom – then why do we punish criminals for their actions? Aren’t they simply predestined to do “God’s will?” Neither science, nor philosophy, nor theology could answer these and many more questions.
Still, I struggled
to somehow cling to my belief in God, in that which would somehow justify our meaning for existence and give purpose to our
lives. Then, it finally happened. The
veil was lifted from my eyes.
It was a personal
series of mistakes and tragic human failings that drove me to the only conclusion I could make: god simply did not exist. Once again, need led me to pray for help, for assistance, for something that would
alleviate the pain and assign purpose for the suffering I was undergoing. But,
like the Pink Floyd song Is There Anybody Out There? the “prayer line”
just rang and rang and rang, without end. Truly, for me, no one was out there.
There was no preordained
purpose. No meaning assigned by a higher power.
No beginning of creation. No end.
All was just a cold, hollow void. Chaos.
It was like Lucifer waking from sleep in Pandaemonium only to discover that all was just a dream: there were no gods,
no angels, and no fall. It was just himself, all alone, and Hell was simply
a part of the natural world. This sudden awareness, then, left me with only
one question: What the hell does any of this – life itself – mean?
* * *
cannot answer the questions I have lived with most of my life, it can certainly provide some measure of understanding of just
what it was that I was experiencing in attempting to understand the paradox of god and suffering.
The crux of my
struggle with faith and reason, I eventually found, was what philosophers and theologians call “theodicy,” the
question of how an all-good, all-powerful, all-knowing god can coincide with the existence of evil. Understanding theodicy and the resultant “argument from evil” was a crucial next step in exploring
the paradox of God and evil.
Coined by German philosopher Gottfried W. Von
Leibniz in the 17th century, “theodicy” incorporates the Greek words for god and justice (Young 63).
Those who study the apparent paradox of Western monotheistic belief and the existence of evil have been doing so for quite
a long time; debate over the dichotomy of God and justice in a world where evil exists has been around since nearly the beginning
of Christianity. Christian thinkers and theologians, from Augustine to Plantinga,
Hume to Leibniz, have attempted to explain in various ways the paradox of a universe where a benevolent, omnipotent God can
coexist with the reality of evil. Common sense and simple human compassion would
seem to imply that “an all-powerful, all-knowing, and perfectly good God would not allow any--or certain kinds of--evil
or suffering to occur” (Augustine). After all, if humans were fashioned in god’s image, should our compassion
not somehow be a reflection of the compassion of the creator? It would seem
that my own questions had been asked by minds greater than mine for many, many centuries.
Yet in some
cases, even the definition and traditional assumptions about what “evil” really is have been challenged in an
attempt to circumvent the argument from evil. Stephen D O’Leary, in his
work The Problem of Evil Revisited, observes that some religions, such as Christian
Science, “deny the existence of evil altogether” (131). “Once
evil is defined,” says O’Leary, “simply as false belief, the problem is easily ‘solved’”
(131). Here, however, theories that call into question the very existence of
evil and real life observation may be said to reasonably collide. Experience
alone trumps this argument. When I see someone hurting another, that pain –
that evil – is real. Whether this perception of right/wrong is a natural,
genetically-coded, inherent morality or simply an inheritance of nurture and the social contract into which individuals are
born among their respective cultures, most people would agree that there is a fundamental difference between acts that harm
and acts that refrain from harming. And
in many ways, the examples of Cahana and Ingabire mentioned earlier stand in stark opposition to the claim that evil is “all
in our heads” (O’Leary 131).
more widely accepted, challenges to our conventional thinking about evil include Saint Augustine’s supposition that
“evil is not ‘real’ since it only ‘exists’ as the negation or privation of the good” (O’Leary
132). This view essentially says that “evil” is not actually a tangible
thing such as “good,” but is instead merely the absence of good, much
as “darkness” is merely the absence of “light.” And
in his article “Wonder What God Had In Mind?”: Leibniz’s theodicy
and the Art of Toni Morrison, Josiah U. Young III notes that Leibniz considered evil as a sort of Platonic “form”
that existed “in God’s intelligence before the creation of the world” (64).
In essence, evil arises not as something specifically created by god (although god and humanity certainly perceive
its existence) but rather as “privation,” that which is outside of what god has created (Young 64). Thus, by delving outside of the “good” which god has created for us, we find ourselves immersed
in what is outside of god: the absence of good or, therefore, god’s will, and when we fall outside of the will of the
deity, we potentially expose ourselves to evil.
Yet I find this
argument intellectually unsatisfying, as it does little to shed light on the real, tangible sufferings I witness on a daily
basis. One can, of course, attempt to compartmentalize the concept of evil by
merely saying it exists only in so far as one acts outside the bounds of that which is good, yet Augustine’s assertion
does little to actually answer the argument from evil. Even if evil is essentially
a state outside the bounds of good, evil still is.
Regardless of whether it exists in and of itself as a creation of god or whether it is nothing more than absence of
what god actually did create (the good), the fact that god does not or cannot harness evil in any form or that god does not
intervene still leaves the argument from evil unanswered. Argument over the
semantics of defining a “storm” does little to comfort its very real victims.
Augustine goes on to assert that our proverbial first parents were not just morally neutral creatures with a choice between
good and evil, but rather creatures who were already created good. “The
first couple was made upright” as dictated by scripture, and that Adam and Eve were not only created “without
sin . . . but that God made their will oriented towards their true Good” (Couenhoven 283). What Augustine comes to believe, in essence, is that humanity has less command over free-will choices
than was first thought. Yet this explanation – meant to show that evil
is not something real either in humanity’s nature or in god’s creation – is an inadequate attempt to somehow
alleviate god from culpability in the argument from evil. In Augustine’s
theodicy, since god neither created evil nor created “man” with moral neutrality (the equal likelihood that Adam
and Eve would choose good or evil), the argument from evil disappears.
even if we were to grant Augustine’s tenuous assertion that man, not god, is responsible for evil because humanity was
created “good” but chose to step outside of the bounds of god’s all-encompassing goodness, the argument
from evil has still not been answered. God remains all-powerful, all-good, and
all-knowing. Why did “he” create a world where non-good was still
a viable choice, and why does “he” still permit evil to happen when so many countless people suffer? God, in Augustine’s theodicy, is little more than an inept referee, neither willing nor able to
actually participate in the game of life but merely judging fouls without ever throwing a flag or stopping the play. Such a god, for me, is unpalatable.
Augustine’s argument assumes that good is the normative, default state of the world and that derivation from good is
merely some sort of intangible ungood, called evil. How do we know, though,
that the natural state, or form, of the world is indeed good? Order and systemization of the physical properties of the universe alone does not necessarily denote spiritual
or even transcendent goodness. In fact, in a world where terror, abuse, violence,
disease, pain, starvation, neglect, and natural disasters appear to be the norm rather than the exception, one may be compelled
to question this a priori assumption.
Indeed, if one
considers humans as naturally bent toward good due to this Augustinian claim on our original creation, then there should be
evidence of this in the real world.
even among young children, we find little real evidence of this natural bent toward good.
When I ask my four-year old son if he has brushed his teeth before going to bed, he often responds “yes”
when, in fact, he did not. From where did this inclination to tell a lie come? If
humans were not held accountable to socially constructed laws and their enforcement, would they still be inclined to naturally
choose that which is right, or would they instead do what was expedient, even if it was wrong?
How long would we continue to stop at stop signs if no one was ever around to see us?
If we were invisible, would we still act morally upright or would the inclination be to do things not indicative of
a species created “naturally good?” Explanations like Augustine’s
only pose more questions than they answer for me.
It seems apparent
that if anything, humans do not lack free will, at least in as far as they may make choices that are available to them. Even people born under despotic regimes still have some choices available to them. This free will is presumably an inheritance of the creator, part of the genetic legacy
handed down for countless generations from one human to another. We have the
choice to use our free will for good or for ill. We may act or refrain from
acting. Yet what happens if we choose not to act even when restraint may mean
the suffering or death of another?
A young child
is playing outside when it wandered from the safety of its yard and into the busy street.
Its father watches in silence, unmoving, as the little one is suddenly struck by a vehicle. As the child lays there broken and bloody, crying and calling out for help, the parent walks toward the
child and bends down, taking its hand in his and telling the child, “I love you.
I have always loved you. I have loved you in ways you can never imagine
in your feeble understanding.”
parable to actually happen in our world, the parent would be charged, tried, and convicted of multiple crimes, including child
endangerment, child neglect, and more. The media would portray the man as an
inhuman monster, and vigilantes might take justice into their own hands. At
the very least, people would shake their heads and wonder just why a parent would do that to their child.
So, why does god
get a free pass?
children, we frail humans, expose themselves to dangers of which they may have only the vaguest notion of the long-term consequences,
god’s inaction is not only overlooked but applauded. For the most part,
god is allowed the luxury of doing nothing because his ways are considered “divine” or “unknowable,”
and those among us who question the paradox of an all-good, all-powerful god who does not have to live by the very moral code
handed down to humans through the Western Christian tradition – namely, atheists and agnostics - are considered evil. In the same parable, people may say “it’s god’s will” or
“none can know the ways of god.” So under similar circumstances,
why does a human parent become a monster while god becomes more glorious? In
this example, god sits upon some Miltonian throne over the heavens, creating Law but altogether exempt from it.
will defense, perhaps one of the earliest and most persistent theories to account for the enigma of evil, contends that since
god created human beings with free will, it is humanity – and not God – that is the moral agent who chooses to
act evil. Atheists claim that since the two concepts are virtual contradictions,
it must follow that the former, god, cannot exist. For these thinkers, to accept
both the presence of God and evil would require that the a priori assumption that
god is all-powerful or that god is all-good would have to be changed; either god is not
omnipotent or god is not good. Yet
monotheists in the Western tradition require god to be both all-powerful and all-good. If we are to grant the theists’ supposition that god must be both, then atheists
are left with only one logical conclusion: that god must not exist. Otherwise,
as George Botterill observes in his work “Falsification and the Existence of God: A Discussion of Plantinga’s
Free Will Defense, “The Problem of Evil is an anomaly . . . for belief in the existence of an omnipotent, omniscient,
and perfectly good God” (118).
The choice to
believe or not believe in a god is a very personal decision, and for many, personal experience and rationale alone cannot
undo their faith. How one decides to rationalize their belief varies, but for
those who simply cannot accept the anomaly of god and evil, the concept of meaning or purpose appears to be moot. If there is no higher power, no deity, who guides our steps and provides inherent, transcendent, and higher-order
meaning for living, how can the atheist possibly justify living when there is no purpose to death, no meaning behind atrocities,
no divine explanation of otherwise random, inexplicable acts of natural or moral evil?
Is it, therefore, possible to find a purpose for continuing to exist – or justifying the procreation of our children
and their progeny after them – in a universe where meaning and purpose does not exist?
For atheists like myself, there is a way of
defining “meaning” in a meaningless world, and I propose that purpose need not be defined by a rigid, Western-style
theistic understanding of life itself. An answer to the enigma of finding purpose
does not require the a priori existence of any god. In fact, one answer lies in the very heart of the problem of the free will defense and theodicy itself:
As humans, we seem to have the ability, when
we are not mentally impaired, to determine choices for our lives. We can
all, free or slave, determine whether we choose to find meaning for our own lives regardless of the existence of evil or of
god itself. And herein lies the heart of my supposition: we can choose to find
our own sense of meaning and purpose.
Personal loss, disillusionment, disenfranchisement,
and painful meditation of life’s callousness have all fostered to my personal choice to cast aside the veil of theism
and embrace what is, for me, a cold, mechanical, nihilistic yet inevitable truth: god does not – cannot – exist. Meaning, therefore, as defined by most theistic systems of belief, is meaningless. If I am to find purpose for my own life where divine purpose no longer appears to
exist independent of my mind, it is important that I readily accept the challenge of facing reality in a universe where no
god exists. What, then, is the meaning of my life?
In a godless, meaningless world where all human
actions are the result of free will choices made in a world of random chance, the ability to decide our own meaning is more
important than ever. It is imperative that I ponder what “meaning”
is for me if I am to decide the path my life now takes.
Natural evil and
disasters such as weather, earthquakes, tsunamis, even improbable meteorite strikes from space may affect the direction of
our lives in one way or another, at one time or another. Worse yet, moral evil
can have an even greater effect upon our lives, when one or more people choose, directly or indirectly, to harm us. Whether one hurts our feelings, neglects us, or harms us physically, evil, or the privation of good, lies
all around us. Yet what I find important is not what happens to me, but rather
how I choose to react to it. And to the realization that evil is all-pervasive
and that there is no god to redeem or justify us upon some day of reckoning, I, as an atheist, must turn to the only authority
that has any real meaning or purpose in my life: me. I decide how I will treat
others. I decide whether my actions will reap more harm than good. I decide what will be the self-defined purpose of my life. In
essence, the atheist can find meaning in free will alone.
Joseph Campbell, in his interview with Bill
Moyers in The Power of Myth, made a keen observation that cuts to the heart of
my search for meaning:
“We are having experiences
all the time which may on occasion
some sense of this, a little intuition of where your bliss is.
Grab it. No one can tell you what it is going to
be. You have to learn
to recognize your own depth. All the time. It is
miraculous. I even
have a superstition that has grown on me as the result
hands coming all the time-namely, that if you do
follow your bliss
you put yourself on a kind of track that has been
there all the while,
waiting for you, and the life that you ought to be
living is the one you
are living. When you can see that, you begin to meet
people who are
in the field of your bliss, and they open the doors
to you. I say, follow
your bliss and don't be afraid, and doors will open
where you didn't
know they were going to be” (Quotes).
Thus, one answer for atheists like me lies in finding and exploring my bliss. Although choosing to follow one’s bliss is an exercise in which anyone can endeavor, Campbell’s
message has special significance for me, since it allows me to determine for myself exactly what it is that I need to do with
my life when life, otherwise, has no meaning or divine direction. And what is
Anything. One’s bliss may be anything that brings true, heartfelt joy to the life of the individual pursuing
it. Whether passion for a hobby, an act, a belief, or something else, each of
us has the capacity to seek out and find just what it is that moves us in the deepest part of our being. For me, that “bliss” includes the pursuit of my art – writing – and the accumulation
of knowledge for knowledge’s sake. But foremost, it involves raising my
boy into a courageous, ethical, honest, empathic, and temperate man, one who has the strength of will and the ability to one
day pursue his own bliss regardless of the obstacles both society and life itself may place in his way. It even includes the search for a deep, interpersonal, emotionally and intellectually enriching relationship
with other humans. For me, pursuit of my bliss has become everything.
Still, this pursuit should
not come at the cost of the rights of others. When pursuit of bliss means infringing
– or even outright violating – the rights of another, then one should choose not
to pursue bliss. The only way I, for instance, can live an ethical, happy life
in a meaningless universe is if I seek both to pursue my bliss and to harm no one.
When pursuit of the former means harming others, I willfully choose to do no harm.
Thus, my self-defined, self-appointed path of the pursuit of meaning and purpose in life is inextricably interwoven
with my choice to pursue bliss where such pursuit considers first and foremost the thoughts, feelings, and needs of others. In addition, harming others can lead to restrictions on one’s freedom to pursue
their bliss, thereby acting as a negative feedback mechanism. The pursuit of
hedonistic, narcissistic, selfish debauchery may only lead to society imposing restrictions on one’s freedom or even
worse – sickness and death. Thus, to “pursue pleasure by any means
possible” is antithetical to the pursuit of true bliss. In essence, to
seek bliss and thereby meaning in life, one should, by necessity, harm no one.
Ultimately, in a world
where meaning may no longer be defined by the dictates of god, atheists have choices greater than mere cynicism or the seeking
of pleasure for pleasure’s sake, like some Epicurean free-for-all where we must “eat, drink, and be merry for
tomorrow we die” (Memento). Atheists can choose, through their own free
will that stands apart from the existence of any deity, their own meaning for the remaining time they have to live on this
earth. Once god is eliminated from the equation of life and the notion divine
purpose is gone, the freedom that comes from such a realization is exhilarating, releasing my mind from arguments of theodicy
and the contemplation of good/evil dichotomies and allowing me to determine my own reason for existence. In the end, if people can come to find, like I, that happiness and purpose, ethics and meaning,
can be found even when divorced from the conceptualization of Western religious heritage, then the argument from evil becomes
less threatening and may be, ironically, life affirming. Finding meaning in
a meaningless world is not only possible, but it is my purpose in life.
Evangelism.” Theodicy. 13 Apr. 2007. Theodicy. 14 Sep. 2007 <http://theodicy.
Keith. “Evidential Arguments from Evil.” Internet Infidels. Ed. Jeffery Jay
Lowder. 2007. 28 Nov.
Bibletools. 2007. Church
of the Great God. 28 Nov. 2007. <http://bibletools.org/index. cfm/fuseaction/Bible.show/sVerseID/30355/eVerseID/30355>.
Botterill, George. “Falsification
and the Existence of God: A Discussion of Plantinga’s
Free Will Defense.” Philosophical Quarterly.
27.107 (1977): 114-34. Academic
Search Premier. 6 Nov. 2007 <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=
Couenhoven, Jesse. “Augustine’s
rejection of the free-will defense: an overview of the
late Augustine’s theodicy.” Religious
Studies. 43.3 (2007): 279-98. Humanities
International Index. 6 Nov. 2007 <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=
Hagerty, Mary B. “The
Quest For Meaning After The Shoah.” The Center for Holocaust
and Genocide Studies. 2007. U of Minnesota
College of Liberal Arts. 14 Sep.
2007 < http://www.chgs.umn.edu/museum/responses/cahana/quest.html>.
“Memento mori.” Wikipedia,
The Free Encyclopedia. 16 Nov. 2007. Wikipedia. 28 Nov.
O’Leary, Stephen D. “The
Problem of Evil Revisted: Theodicy Argument as Forensic
Rhetoric.” Philosophy & Rhetoric.
29.2 (1996): 122-46. Humanities International
Index. 6 Nov. 2007 <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db
Quotes from Joseph Campbell’s The Power of Myth –
An Interview with Bill Moyers. Ed.
28 Nov. 2007<http://www.qcc.mass.edu/pconnell/joec.html>.
‘miracle’ child treated in UK.” BBC News 11 Jul. 2003. 14 Sep. 2007 <http://
Jonathan. “Rwanda: Legacy of genocide.” Telegraph Magazine 10 Jun. 2007. 14 Sep. 2007 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2007/10/06/sm_rwanda.xml.
III, Josiah U. “Wonder
What God Had in Mind?”: Leibniz's Theodicy and the Art of Toni Morrison.” Black Theology: An International Journal.
5.1 (2007): 63-80.
Academic Search Premier. 6 Nov. 2007 <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.